2023 adult hypertension diet guidelines released, star vein medical remind you to pay attention to blood pressure health
AccordingReport on Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese Residents (2020 year),The current number of adults with hypertension in China is estimated to be 2.45Billions,andThe overall prevalence rate is on the rise. Hypertension is one of the main causes of cardiovascular disease and death, such as coronary heart disease and stroke.
The risk factors of hypertension are related to unreasonable diet, including high sodium, low potassium diet, excessive drinking and so on. Overweight and obesity, which are closely related to diet, are also important risk factors for hypertension. Dietary intervention is recognized as the prevention and treatment of hypertension at home and abroad, and it is very important to improve blood pressure.
Recently, the National Health Commission issued the "Adult Hypertension Food and Care Guidelines (2023Year Edition) (hereinafter referred to as the "Guide"),Provide food guidance for auxiliary prevention and improvement of hypertension.
"Guidelines" on the daily diet of patients with hypertension put forward5Principles and recommendations.
- Reduce sodium and increase potassium, eat a light diet
Reduce the intake of salt (sodium chloride) and sodium-containing condiments (soy sauce, sauces, oyster sauce, chicken essence, MSG, etc.), daily sodium intake does not exceed 2000milligrams (equivalent to table salt5g).
Light diet, eat less high fat, high cholesterol food. Increasing dietary potassium intake may lower blood pressure. It is recommended to increase the intake of potassium-rich foods (such as fresh vegetables, fruits and legumes);Good renal function can choose high potassium and low sodium salt.Choose foods rich in calcium and magnesium. Insufficient dietary calcium intake is a common problem in China, and it is recommended that patients with hypertension should increase their calcium intake appropriately.Magnesium can play a vasodilatory role in the peripheral vascular system, which can counteract the booster effect of high sodium.
- Reasonable diet, scientific diet
The "Guidelines" pointed out that a reasonable diet refers to the adjustment and optimization of food types and weight according to the patient's own condition on the basis of a balanced diet to meet their own health needs. Hypertension patients should follow the principle of reasonable diet, rich food varieties, reasonable arrangements for three meals a day.
A balanced diet should consist of five main types of food:The first category is cereals and potatoes, including cereals (including whole grains), potatoes and mixed beans.;The second category is vegetables and fruits.;The third category is animal food, including livestock, poultry, fish, eggs, milk;The fourth category is large beans and nuts;The fifth category is cooking oil and salt. It is recommended that patients with hypertension eat more fruits and vegetables rich in dietary fiber, and dark vegetables account for more than half of the total amount of vegetables, and vegetables and fruits cannot replace each other. Appropriate protein supplement, can choose milk, fish, soybean and its products as a source of protein.
- Eat dynamic balance, healthy weight
The guidelines recommend that all overweight and obese hypertensive patients lose weight and control their weight, including controlling energy intake and increasing physical activity. Excessive energy intake can easily lead to overweight and obesity. Our country18-49The average daily energy requirement for young adults with light physical activity level was2259Large card, female1800Big card. The daily energy intake of overweight and obese people should be reduced than before.300-500Large calories, while controlling the intake of high-energy foods (high-fat foods, sugary drinks and alcohol, etc.).
Advocate regular moderate intensity aerobic physical exercise, reduce static behavior time. General adults should be cumulative weekly2.5-5hours of moderate intensity aerobic activity, or1.25-2.5Hours of high-intensity aerobic activity, exercise can improve blood pressure levels. It is recommended that non-hypertensive people (to reduce the risk of hypertension) or hypertensive patients (to reduce blood pressure) should have weekly4-7Days, accumulated every day30-60minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity.
- Quit smoking, limit alcohol, psychological balance
The guidelines strongly recommend that people with high blood pressure stop smoking, smoking cessation can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Excessive drinking significantly increases the risk of hypertension, and the risk increases with the increase of alcohol consumption. It is recommended that patients with hypertension should not drink alcohol, and drinkers should stop drinking as much as possible.
Reduce mental stress, maintain psychological balance, mental tension can activate sympathetic nerves and increase blood pressure. Patients with hypertension should carry out stress management to avoid blood pressure fluctuations caused by mental stress, work and rest regularly, ensure adequate sleep, and do not stay up late.
- Monitoring blood pressure, self-management
Regularly monitor blood pressure, understand blood pressure values and standard status, follow the doctor's advice for lifestyle intervention, adhere to long-term treatment, self-management. Patients were followed up according to their overall risk and blood pressure level.
Home patients with high blood pressure can be used to monitor blood pressure levels at any time.
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